The deep cause of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease

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Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide.

It is the most common cause of dementia in older adults and is characterized by a gradual decline in memory, thinking, and reasoning abilities, ultimately leading to the inability to perform daily activities.

For many years, scientists have been studying the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease, trying to find new treatments and therapies that can slow or even stop its progression.

One of the hallmarks of the disease is the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain, including beta-amyloid and tau, which form plaques and tangles, respectively.

These abnormal proteins lead to the degeneration of brain cells and the loss of brain function.

While scientists have long suspected that the loss of connections between brain cells, called synapses, plays a crucial role in Alzheimer’s disease, actual evidence of the role of synaptic loss had been limited to a small number of brain biopsies and post-mortem brain exams conducted on patients with moderate or advanced disease.

However, a recent study from Yale University has shed new light on the relationship between synaptic loss and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease.

Using a new glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) PET imaging scan developed at Yale, researchers were able to observe the loss of synapses in living patients with even mild symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

The study involved measuring metabolic activity at the brain synapses of 45 people diagnosed with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

The researchers then measured each person’s cognitive performance in five key areas: verbal memory, language skills, executive function, processing speed, and visual-spatial ability.

They found that the loss of synapses or connections between brain cells was strongly associated with poor performance on cognitive tests.

Additionally, synaptic loss was found to be a stronger indicator of poor cognitive performance than the loss of the overall volume of neurons in the brain.

The researchers can now track the loss of synapses in patients over time, providing a better understanding of the development of cognitive decline in individuals.

The findings have significant implications for Alzheimer’s research and could lead to new biomarkers for testing the efficacy of new Alzheimer’s drugs.

By using SV2A PET imaging scans to track synaptic loss, researchers can gain a better understanding of how the disease progresses and how new treatments can be developed to slow or even stop its progression.

Overall, the study underscores the importance of understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer’s disease and developing new diagnostic tools and treatments that can help patients and their families cope with this devastating condition.

Cognitive decline is a natural part of the aging process, but there are things you can do to help prevent or delay it. Here are some tips to keep your brain healthy and reduce the risk of cognitive decline:

Stay physically active: Exercise helps increase blood flow to the brain, which can help keep it healthy. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week.

Eat a healthy diet: A healthy diet that’s low in saturated and trans fats, and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help keep your brain healthy. Consider a Mediterranean-style diet that includes fish, nuts, and olive oil.

Get enough sleep: Lack of sleep can affect memory and cognitive function. Aim for seven to eight hours of sleep each night.

Stay mentally active: Engage in mentally stimulating activities such as reading, doing puzzles, or learning a new skill. Keep your brain active and challenged to help maintain cognitive function.

Manage stress: Chronic stress can have a negative impact on the brain, so find ways to manage stress, such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises.

Stay socially connected: Social isolation and loneliness can have a negative impact on cognitive function. Stay connected with friends and family, and consider volunteering or joining a social group.

If you care about Alzheimer’s disease, please read studies about daytime napping strongly linked to Alzheimer’s disease, and how to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

For more information about brain health, please see recent studies about alternative drug strategy against Alzheimer’s, and coconut oil may help improve cognitive function in Alzheimer’s.

The study was published in Alzheimer’s & Dementia and conducted by Christopher van Dyck et al.

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