Essential hypertension—a type of high blood pressure that occurs without a known cause—is linked to an impaired ability of the blood vessels to dilate (also called vascular responsiveness).
Relaxation of the smooth muscle cells plays a role in vascular responsiveness.
In a recent study from Denmark, researchers found that men with high blood pressure may have reduced blood vessel dilation in the legs and that a high-intensity interval exercise training improves blood vessel function.
The study is published in the American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology.
Previous research has shown that exercise can be beneficial for blood pressure regulation.
During exercise, cells in the blood vessels called endothelial cells release chemicals that aid in smooth muscle cell relaxation.
Studies have also found that people with hypertension have reduced vascular responsiveness in their arms, but little is known about the relationship between hypertension, exercise, and vasodilation in the legs.
In the study, the team compared sedentary men with essential hypertension (average age: 59) to an age-matched control group without high blood pressure.
Before the exercise training, the research team assessed the vasodilation response in the men’s legs.
The team first infused sodium nitroprusside—a medication used to lower blood pressure by promoting vasodilation—into the femoral artery in the thigh.
Afterward, the volunteers received an infusion of acetylcholine, a compound found in the nervous system that naturally dilates blood vessels.
The volunteers participated in supervised cycling sessions two to three times a week for six weeks.
The sessions consisted of 10-20-30 training, where the volunteers cycled in one-minute intervals:
The first 30 seconds was at 30% maximal intensity,
followed by 20 seconds at 50% intensity, and
the final 10 seconds at 100% effort.
Each exercise session—lasting less than 20 minutes—consisted of five consecutive intervals followed by a three-minute recovery and another five-minute interval set.
The team found that after the six weeks of training, the hypertension group showed marked improvements in blood pressure as well as vascular responsiveness in the legs.
These findings provide the first line of evidence in humans, that smooth muscle cell vasodilator responsiveness is reduced in the lower limbs of hypertensive men, and that an improved endothelial function can compensate for this impairment.
Based on the findings, the 10-20-30 training may be considered an attractive and simple exercise modality for men with essential hypertension.
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