Scientists unlock the secrets of eyes to diagnose vascular dementia

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In a groundbreaking discovery by the Keck School of Medicine of USC, a non-invasive eye exam could become a significant tool for screening cerebral small vessel disease, notably in underdiagnosed and high-risk populations such as Black Americans.

This disease, critical in discussions around cognitive impairment and dementia, has often stayed undetected until substantial, irreversible brain damage has occurred.

The findings of this study, published in the journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia, bring forth a glimmer of hope, offering a potential pathway for early identification and intervention.

Navigating through the Retinal Vessels

A novel device, focusing on the retinal blood vessels, enabled researchers to correlate specific characteristics within the eye’s vasculature to early indicators of cognitive decline and structural changes typical in the brains of individuals with cerebral small vessel disease.

Utilizing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) – a type of retinal imaging – the team could calculate the density, flow rate, and velocity of blood through the retinal vessels.

OCTA allows for detailed imaging of minuscule retinal capillaries without requiring dye injection and can detect changes even before clinical symptoms emerge.

Linking Eye and Brain Health

The research, which involved participants from the African American Eye Disease Study with no history of cognitive impairment, disclosed a compelling connection:

lower blood flow rates and vessel density within the retinal capillaries were linked to both functional and structural brain changes affiliated with cerebral small vessel disease.

Moreover, lower rates of blood flow and vessel density correlated with diminished information processing speed and executive function, as well as with MRI measures linked to the disease.

“Altered retinal blood flow may be a biomarker of early changes in cognition resulting from cerebral small vessel disease,” stated Xuejuan Jiang, Ph.D., the lead author of the study, suggesting that retinal blood flow rates could be an especially sensitive measure for detecting cerebral alterations.

Advocating for Inclusivity in Research

Jiang emphasized the significance of conducting this study with Black participants, given the historical lack of inclusivity of Black people in research and clinical trials related to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

This is despite higher prevalence rates of dementia within Black communities compared to white communities in the United States.

Given that cerebral small vessel disease and vascular dementia are more prevalent among populations with elevated rates of diabetes, hypertension, and other vascular diseases, which includes Black and Latino populations, diversifying research participants is crucial.

The Horizon of Holistic Healthcare

The results of this study underline the potential for using innovative technology like OCTA to not only detect and monitor the progression of cerebral small vessel disease but also potentially evaluate the efficacy of related treatments.

In the pursuit of comprehensive healthcare and equitable medical advancements, such strides forward underscore the necessity of inclusive, pioneering research that doesn’t simply treat, but also preemptively identifies and addresses, supporting health from multiple angles.

As we delve deeper into understanding the interconnectedness of our body, research such as this charts a course toward not only unraveling the mysteries of diseases but also crafting pathways that enable early detection and intervention, fostering a holistic approach to health and well-being across diverse populations.

If you care about dementia, please read studies about how the Mediterranean diet could protect your brain health, and Vitamin B supplements could help reduce dementia risk.

For more information about brain health, please see recent studies that high-fiber diet could help lower the dementia risk, and these antioxidants could help reduce dementia risk.

The research findings can be found in Alzheimer’s & Dementia.

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