A recent study from the University of Kentucky and elsewhere found that a class of antibiotics called aminoglycosides could be a promising treatment for frontotemporal dementia.
Frontotemporal dementia is the most common type of early-onset dementia.
It typically begins between ages 40 and 65 and affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which leads to behavior changes, difficulty speaking and writing, and memory deterioration.
A subgroup of patients with frontotemporal dementia has a specific genetic mutation that prevents brain cells from making a protein called progranulin.
Although progranulin is not widely understood, its absence is linked to the disease.
In the study, the team found that after aminoglycoside antibiotics were added to neuronal cells with this mutation, the cells started making the full-length progranulin protein by skipping the mutation.
They found two specific aminoglycoside antibiotics – Gentamicin and G418 – were both effective in fixing the mutation and making the functional progranulin protein.
After adding Gentamicin or G418 molecules to the affected cells, the progranulin protein level recovered up to about 50 to 60%.
These results could be promising for drug development. Currently, there are no effective therapies for any type of dementia.
After this preclinical proof of concept study, the next step is to study the antibiotics’ effects on mice with the mutation that causes frontotemporal dementia.
Another plan is to develop new compounds from Gentamicin and G418 that could be safer and more effective.
Although Gentamicin is an FDA-approved drug, its clinical usage is limited as it is linked to a number of adverse side effects.
For more information about dementia and your health, please see recent studies about common tooth disease that may increase risks of dementia, and results showing Mediterranean diet may protect against memory loss and dementia.
The study was conducted by Haining Zhu et al and published in Human Molecular Genetics.
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