Plant-based diets carry some risk of inadequate protein, vitamin, and mineral intake.
In a study from the University of Helsinki, scientists found that plant-based diets can pose a risk to bone health if adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes are not ensured.
They tested 136 adults who adhered to one of three study diets for 12 weeks.
One of them corresponded to the average Finnish diet, containing roughly 70% animal-derived protein of total protein, while most of the plant-based protein originated from cereal products.
In the second study diet, half of the protein was derived from plant products and the other half from animal products, while the third one contained 30% animal protein and 70% plant-based protein of total protein.
Sources of animal protein, both red and white meat as well as dairy products, were partially replaced with plant-based proteins by adding a diverse range of legumes, nuts, seeds, and cereal products to the diets.
Fluid dairy products, which are fortified with vitamin D in Finland, were partially replaced with plant-based drinks not fortified with calcium or vitamin D.
The amount of cheese was lower in the diets which contained more plant-based protein compared to the diet rich in animal protein. All diets contained the same amount of fish and eggs.
The researchers found that both bone formation and resorption increased when part of the animal protein in the diet was replaced with plant protein, which may in the long term be detrimental to bone health.
The findings are in line with previous studies, which found vegetarians were found to have a greater risk of bone fractures.
The researchers suggest the changes in bone metabolism as well as calcium and vitamin D intakes are probably caused by the low amount of dairy products and, consequently, the low amount of calcium and vitamin D consumed.
They say when adopting an increasingly plant-based diet, it is important, in terms of bone health, to ensure adequate calcium and vitamin D intake.
In the case of vitamin D, the recommended intake for adults is 10 micrograms per day. This amount includes the total intake from both food and vitamin supplements.
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The study was conducted by Suvi T Itkonen et al and published in The Journal of Nutrition.
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