Smoking and high blood pressure are independent cardiovascular risk factors that frequently coexist within patients.
In a new study from the Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, researchers found smoking is linked to lower rates of blood pressure control in patients taking medication for high blood pressure.
They analyzed data from adult hypertension patients who were seen and treated between 2018 to 2019. Data from 710 patients (255 men, 455 women) with an average age of 66 years was analyzed.
The study classified blood pressure measurements as controlled (<140/90 mmHg), Stage 1 (140-159 and/or 90-99 mmHg), Stage 2 (160-179 and/or 100-109 mmHg) and Stage 3 (>180 and/or over >100 mmHg).
Researchers also recorded information on tobacco use and classified patients as never smokers, current smokers or former smokers.
Overall, blood pressure control rates were similar between men and women (36.1% versus 32.5%, respectively), as was the prevalence of Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3 blood pressure.
The team found among never smokers, blood pressure categorization did not differ by gender.
Among male never smokers, 37.1% fell into the controlled blood pressure category compared to 34.9% of female never smokers.
Current smokers were linked to lower rates of blood pressure control among men and women, with only 9.1% of male current smokers categorized as having controlled blood pressure and 25% of female current smokers categorized as having controlled blood pressure.
Male former smokers had 37.6% blood pressure control, which is a similar rate to male never smokers, while female former smokers had 23.8% blood pressure control, demonstrating a risk even with smoking cessation.
The team says middle-aged men are known to have lower adherence to treatment. When associated with a disease that neglects their own health, such as smoking, this association becomes easier to understand.
Undoubtedly, addressing smoking cessation will be the biggest lever in achieving full health, thus reinforcing the need for better adherence to treatment.
If you care about blood pressure control, please read studies about loneliness may make it hard to control high blood pressure and findings of living in an apartment may harm your blood pressure.
For more information about blood pressure health, please see recent studies about half of U.S. adults need to monitor blood pressure at home and results showing a better way to choose the right high blood pressure drug for you.
The study was presented at the ACC Latin America 2021 Virtual conference. One author of the study is Márcio Gonçalves de Sousa, MD.
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