In a new study from the University of Gothenburg, researchers found in patients with COVID-19, a high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of death and prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay.
Previous studies have shown that a high BMI is a risk factor for severe COVID-19.
Obesity increases the risk of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension and has been shown to increase the need for mechanical ventilation in association with other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia.
In the study, the team analyzed data on 1,649 COVID-19 patients from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry, a national quality registry that covers all ICUs in Sweden.
The patients included in the study were admitted to ICUs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 6 and August 30, 2020, 96% had a positive PCR test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus or a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, were all over the age of 18, and had current weight and height data available.
A majority of the study cohort had a high BMI; 78.3% were overweight or had obesity.
There was a strong link between increasing BMI and the composite outcome of death during intensive care, or an ICU stay of longer than 14 days in survivors.
Individuals with a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or more were twice as likely to have one of the outcomes of death or prolonged ICU stay, adjusted for age and sex.
Moreover, this association remained after adjusting for the presence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, liver or kidney disease, as well as after adjusting for severity of illness at ICU admission.
The researchers conclude that obesity is an independent risk factor for a severe outcome from intensive care in patients with COVID-19 and suggest that BMI be included in the severity scoring for COVID-19 ICU patients.
If you care about long COVID-19 symptoms, please read studies about this heart failure drug may treat COVID-19 long-hauler symptom and findings of how many people get ‘long COVID’ – and who is most at risk?
For more information about COVID and your health, please see recent studies about 1 in 3 COVID survivors has long-term symptoms and results showing that long COVID affecting more than half of patients 6 months on.
The study is published in PLOS ONE. One author of the study is Lovisa Sjögren.
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