Scientists find a new cause of vision loss in older people

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Losing vision as we age can be a terrifying thought, and for millions of people worldwide, it’s a stark reality.

A medical team led by Dr. Nicolas Bazan at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine dove into understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of vision loss in older people.

But what is AMD, and why does it happen? Moreover, is there a way to protect our eyes as we grow older?

Peering into Age-Related Vision Loss

Imagine your eye as a camera. At the back of it, there’s a part called the macula which helps you see clearly, especially when you’re reading or recognizing faces.

AMD damages the macula, and as a result, the central vision becomes blurry or dark. This doesn’t lead to complete blindness but makes everyday activities like reading and driving incredibly challenging.

According to the Bright Focus Foundation, nearly 20 million adults in the United States are living with some form of AMD. Not just a concern for Americans, around 200 million people across the globe are navigating through life with this eye condition.

The projections hint that by 2040, this number will rise to 288 million. The cause? Age is a big factor. As people hit 50, their chances of developing AMD start to climb, and by 75, almost 30% face a significant risk.

A Closer Look at the Culprit: Fatty Acids

Dr. Bazan and his team made a fascinating discovery regarding the fats (fatty acids) in our eyes. These fatty acids aren’t bad; in fact, they are essential in maintaining our eye health. One such fatty acid is called DHA.

When we’re young, a sufficient amount of DHA in the eye ensures we see properly.

However, as we age, particularly in AMD, the levels of DHA decrease, especially in the peripheral parts of the retina (the region that captures light and helps us see).

Now, DHA is like a building block. It helps create other crucial molecules – one being elovanoids. Elovanoids are like the eye’s repairmen; they fix damaged eye cells and help generate new, healthy ones.

So, when there’s less DHA, there’s also less of these repairmen molecules, making it harder for the eyes to recover from damage.

Consequently, the eye’s defense mechanism weakens, leading to more significant issues and, in this context, AMD.

Women, Age, and Vision

Interestingly, the research highlighted some gender differences in dealing with AMD. Women, especially as they age, might be more susceptible to vision problems caused by AMD.

Typically, women have more DHA than men, thanks to the hormone estrogen. But as women age and estrogen levels drop, so does DHA.

This means their eyes might have fewer repairmen molecules (elovanoids), leaving them more vulnerable to AMD.

Given that 66% of people with AMD are female, according to the National Institutes of Health, understanding these gender disparities is crucial in developing potential treatments.

In the midst of these findings, Dr. Bazan and his team found themselves at a crossroad of new possibilities.

Understanding the role of DHA and elovanoids might pave the way to develop new treatments that could either help prevent or manage AMD, particularly as our society continues to age.

Moreover, discerning the distinct experiences of men and women with AMD creates room for more personalized and effective treatment strategies.

This investigation is an exemplar of how intricate our bodies are, with factors like fatty acids and hormones playing pivotal roles in our health in ways we are only beginning to understand.

Moreover, it underscores the importance of medical research that not only unveils the problems but can illuminate potential paths forward, offering hope to millions experiencing the challenges of AMD.

With ongoing research and the continuous evolution of medical technology, there’s hope that advancements in the understanding of AMD will illuminate ways to mitigate its impact, preserving not only our sight but also our quality of life as we age.

If you care about eye health, please read studies about how to save your eyes from diabetes, and the treatments of dry eye you need to know.

For more information about eye disease, please see recent studies about how to protect your eyes from glaucoma, and results showing this eye surgery may reduce dementia risk.

The research findings can be found in Experimental Eye Research.

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