Scientists find how to improve outcomes of chronic kidney disease

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A new study from Osaka University examined patients with CKD to evaluate the impact of a commonly prescribed medication on disease outcome.

They found the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), a class of medicines that acts by suppressing the action of the steroid hormone aldosterone, is linked to improved kidney prognosis in individuals with CKD.

The study is published in Hypertension and was conducted by Tatsufumi Oka et al.

Just as a water filtration system acts to filter contaminants from the water you drink, your kidneys act to filter waste and excess fluid from your blood.

In chronic kidney disease (CKD), kidney function is impaired over time, and the resultant build-up of excess fluid and waste has harmful repercussions on overall body function.

MRAs, which include spironolactone, eplerenone, and potassium canrenoate, are commonly used to reduce swelling, blood pressure, and urine protein levels in people with CKD.

In the study, the team showed that MRA use was linked to a 28% lower risk of kidney replacement and a 24% lower rate of death.

They found a reduced risk for kidney replacement across various subgroups of people with CKD, including those with and without diabetes and those with severely impaired renal function.

These findings highlight the association of MRA use and improved renal outcomes in CKD patients with varying health backgrounds.

Overall, this study supports the use of MRAs in treatment plans for various groups of people with CKD who are not undergoing dialysis.

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Previous studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle habits and common health conditions are linked to chronic kidney disease.

In a study from Kanazawa University published in Nutrients, researchers found that skipping breakfast and late dinner might be linked to a higher risk of proteinuria, which is a key factor of CKD.

Proteinuria is increased levels of protein in the urine. This condition can be a sign of kidney damage.

The most common causes of CKD are diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity.

Although these diseases can be treated individually with drug treatment, in recent years, treatment with behavioral changes such as diet and exercise have attracted attention.

In the study, the team focused on proteinuria which is a key prognostic factor of CKD.

Proteinuria is generally defined as dipstick urinary protein excretion 1+ . Proteinuria is an early sign of kidney disease.

The researchers used a questionnaire used in annual medical check-ups to examine over 26,000 patients aged >40 years between 1998 and 2014.

Unhealthy dietary habits were defined as follows: late dinner (eating dinner within 2 h of going to bed at a frequency of three or more times a week); skipping breakfast (three or more times a week); quick eating (eating faster than people of the same age group); and late evening snack (eating snacks after dinner three or more times a week).

Quick eating (29%) was the most common unhealthy dietary habit in the whole patient population, followed by late dinner (19%), late evening snack (16%), and skipping breakfast (9%).

During an average follow-up period of over 3 years, 10% of patients developed proteinuria. Of these dietary habits, skipping breakfast and late dinner were linked to an increased risk of developing proteinuria.

Surprisingly, unhealthy dietary habits were not linked to changes in body weight.

The team says unhealthy dietary habits might be associated with a risk factor for CKD irrespective of changes in body weight.

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