In a new study, researchers found why some people are more prone to anxiety.
They found anxiety-prone people can blame serotonin cleanup proteins gone awry in their amygdala, a brain region controlling emotions.
Targeting the region with anti-anxiety medication could provide quicker relief.
The research was conducted by a team at the University of Cambridge.
The same event or set of life circumstances could send one person into the depths of anxiety or despair while leaving another unaffected.
This distinction, called trait anxiety, arises from the proteins involved in serotonin signaling, a neurotransmitter implicated in anxiety and depression.
In the study, the team measured the level of gene expression for genes encoding serotonin transporters—the protein tasked with cleaning up serotonin after its release—and those encoding receptors in marmosets.
The researchers focused on brain areas involved in emotional processing, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.
They found marmosets with greater trait anxiety had high levels of gene expression for serotonin transporters in their amygdalae.
The research team used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common anxiety medication, directly into the amygdalae of anxious marmosets.
This provided immediate symptom relief—an effect that normally takes several weeks to appear if the drug is taken orally.
The lead author of the study is Shaun Quah.
The study is published in the Journal of Neuroscience.
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