In a new study, researchers found have discovered a new gene that causes blindness and a heart muscle disease.
They have also managed to halt the progression of eye disease and treat cardiac disease by administering a food supplement.
The research was conducted by a team at the University of Geneva, Switzerland.
The genome consists of 20,000 genes, all of which may be capable of triggering disease.
It is estimated that there are 7,000 unknown genes that cause recessive genetic diseases resulting from mutations in two copies of a gene that have been inherited from each parent.
The researchers have recently identified 45 new genes that cause blindness or cognitive problems.
The scientists focused in particular on the SLC6A6 gene, which encodes a transporter protein that carries an amino acid essential for the functioning of the retina and cardiac muscle: taurine.
When there are pathogenic mutations of the SLC6A6 gene, an individual will suffer from a lack of taurine and will gradually lose his sight until he becomes blind within a few years and develops a weak heart.
The geneticists at the University of Geneva hypothesized that a taurine supplement might make it possible to compensate for this deficiency.
The supplement was given to a young girl suffering from the disease to help stop the progression of her visual degeneration and to treat her cardiomyopathy.
Recessive genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis are the result of a mutation in the two copies of the same gene inherited from each parent.
The team studied the genomes of 500 Pakistani families who had ill and healthy children in order to identify as many genes as possible that cause these conditions.
One family was a source of particular interest to the researchers: the two parents—healthy first cousins—had four children, two of whom were sick: a 15-year-old boy, who lost all his sight in a few years, and a 4-year-old girl, who was gradually losing her sight but was still able to make out shapes and colors.
Their genome sequencing showed that their illness was linked to a mutation of the SLC6A6 gene.
This gene produces a protein of the cell membrane that transports taurine, an amino acid that is especially important for the functioning of the retina and cardiac muscle.
The team found patients suffering from the disease have extremely low levels of taurine in their blood.
They showed that the genetic abnormality in the family from Pakistan reduced the carrying capacity of taurine to 15% of its normal level.
The scientists speculated that it might be possible to block the progression of the disease by administering taurine to the children.
They brought the family to Geneva to conduct detailed investigations into this rare genetic disease.
In addition to the progressive visual impairment, which was now unfortunately total in the case of the boy, the doctors diagnosed damage to the cardiac muscle in both children.
The little girl fortunately still retained some residual vision.
Since taurine is a food supplement rather than a medicine, the Swiss Ethics Commission agreed that it could be administered orally.
The results quickly came about: in three days, the taurine levels in their blood jumped from 6 to 85 μ mol/l, reaching normal thresholds.
And, after two years, the cardiomyopathy had completely disappeared in both children!
In addition, the degeneration in the girl’s sight was brought to a halt, and there was even an improvement, meaning she could move around by herself.
Unfortunately, this development was not possible for the boy, who had already lost his entire retina.
The study shows the first time a food supplement given orally has been used to treat the retina and the heart successfully.
This little girl has paved the way for a potential cure for newborns suffering from the same recessive disease.
The researchers estimate that there are possibly 6,000 babies worldwide who might suffer from the same SLC6A6-related disease, and around 300 in Europe and North America.
The team’s goal now is to detect newborns affected by the condition at an early stage so they can be treated from birth with a taurine supplement and potentially prevent the onset of symptoms.
The study is published in Human Molecular Genetics.
Copyright © 2020 Knowridge Science Report. All rights reserved.