In a new study, researchers have discovered that that fat over-spills from the liver into the pancreas, triggering type 2 diabetes.
Importantly, this means that through diet and persistence, patients are able to lose fat and potentially reverse their diabetes.
The sooner this is done after diagnosis, the more likely it is that remission can be achieved.
The research was conducted by a team at Newcastle University, UK.
The study involved a group of people from Tyneside who previously had Type 2 diabetes but had lost weight and successfully reversed the condition.
The majority remained non-diabetic for the rest of the two-year study, however, a small group went on to re-gain the weight and re-developed Type 2 diabetes.
The team explained what the advanced scanning techniques and blood monitoring revealed.
They say that when a person accumulates too much fat, which should be stored under the skin, then it has to go elsewhere in the body.
The amount that can be stored under the skin varies from person to person, indicating a ‘personal fat threshold’ above which fat can cause mischief.
When fat cannot be safely stored under the skin, it is then stored inside the liver and over-spills to the rest of the body including the pancreas.
This ‘clogs up’ the pancreas, switching off the genes which direct how insulin should effectively be produced, and this causes Type 2 diabetes.
This research confirms the Twin Cycle Hypothesis—that Type 2 diabetes is caused by excess fat actually within both the liver and pancreas and especially that this process is reversible.
This latest paper builds on previous studies showing exactly why Type 2 diabetes can be reversed back to normal glucose control.
Those studies led to the large DiRECT trial which showed that patients can achieve remission of Type 2 diabetes by using a low-calorie diet with support to maintain the weight loss.
The new study shows that Type 2 diabetes is a simple condition where the individual has accumulated more fat than they can cope with.
This is the first time that scientists are able to observe people developing type 2 diabetes.
The lead author of the study is Professor Roy Taylor.
The study is published in Cell Metabolism.
Copyright © 2019 Knowridge Science Report. All rights reserved.