Traumatic brain injury, or TBI, is brain damages caused by accidents, such as a car accident, a fall, or a football tackle.
TBI can happen to anyone at any age. Research has shown that a sudden movement of the head and brain can cause the brain to bounce or twist in the skull.
This will stretch and injure brain cells and create E chemical changes.
Experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provide information about TBI and how to prevent it.
About 75% of TBIs that occur each year are mild ones. The common symptoms include headache, confusion, blurred vision and behavioral changes.
For moderate and more serious TBI, the symptoms include repeated vomiting or nausea, slurred speech, weak arms or legs, and problems with cognitive functions.
People who have questions about TBI should talk with their doctor, and people who experience TBI should receive medical attention as soon as possible.
Currently, the diagnosis of TBI is based on guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American College of Rehabilitation Medicine, and other institutes.
Doctors usually do a medical exam to check the potential head injury. The exam includes an evaluation of thinking, motor function, sensory function, coordination, and reflexes.
They may also use imaging tests such as CT scans and MRI to rule out a life-threatening injury to the brain.
Current research is trying to find more sensitive and objective ways to diagnose and detect mild TBI.
It is also important to do a timely diagnosis to prevent repetitive injury. If people who have not recovered from a head injury have a second head injury, this can result in more significant injury to the brain.
Researchers suggest that people who have TBI can face short- or long-term complications that may affect their thinking, sensation, language, or emotion functions.
For people who exercise first, mild TBI, it is important to rest and reduce vigorous activity for a short period of time.
For those who have moderate to severe TBI, physical therapy, occupational therapy and psychiatric therapy may be necessary.
Although it is impossible to reverse any brain damage caused by trauma, it is possible to stabilize patients and try to prevent further harm.
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