Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise.
The following risk factors may increase the risk of prostate cancer:
Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.
Family history of prostate cancer
A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than-average risk of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer.
The prostate needs male hormones to work the way it should. The main male sex hormone is testosterone. Testosterone helps the body develop and maintain male sex characteristics.
Testosterone is changed into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by an enzyme in the body.
DHT is important for normal prostate growth but can also cause the prostate to get bigger and may play a part in the development of prostate cancer.
The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) found that vitamin E taken alone increased the risk of prostate cancer. The risk continued even after the men stopped taking vitamin E.
Folate is a kind of vitamin B that occurs naturally in some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice.
Folic acid is a man-made form of folate that is found in vitamin supplements and fortified foods, such as whole-grain breads and cereals.
A 10-year study showed that the risk of prostate cancer was increased in men who took 1 milligram (mg) supplements of folic acid. However, the risk of prostate cancer was lower in men who had enough folate in their diets.
Dairy and calcium
A diet high in dairy foods and calcium may cause a small increase in the risk of prostate cancer.
News source: National Cancer Institute. The content is edited for length and style purposes.
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